PIC16LF1939-I/PT: Advantages, Special Features and Power Consumption Features

By Microchip Technology 96

PIC16LF1939-I/PT: Advantages, Special Features and Power Consumption Features

PIC16LF1939-I/PT is an 8-bit microcontroller (microcontroller) launched by Microchip Technology. This microcontroller belongs to the PIC16LF series, uses low-power CMOS technology, and has the characteristics of high performance, small size and low cost. It is commonly used in various embedded systems and control applications, such as smart home, industrial automation, automotive electronics, motor control and other fields.

PIC16LF1939-I/PT uses Flash technology and has rich peripherals and functions, including multiple analog input/output pins, digital I/O pins, PWM output, timers, communication interfaces, etc. This chip's PT package indicates that it is a plastic package with pins, typically used in surface mount (SMT) applications.

Ⅰ.Specification parameters of PIC16LF1939-I/PT

•Height:1 mm
•Length:10 mm
•Width:10 mm
•Number of digits:8
•Number of pins:44
•Analog-to-digital conversion number (ADC):1
•Humidity Sensitivity:Yes
•ADC resolution:10 bit
•Data RAM size:1 kB
•Maximum clock frequency:32 MHz
•Program memory size:28 kB
•Supply voltage-Minimum:1.8 V
•Supply voltage-Max:3.6 V
•Installation style:SMD/SMT
•Data bus width:8 bit
•Minimum operating temperature:-40℃
•Maximum operating temperature:+85℃
•Processor family:PIC16LF
•Data Ram type:SRAM
•Data ROM size:256 B
•Data Rom type:EEPROM
•Number of input/output terminals:36 I/O
•Number of ADC channels:14 Channel
•Interface type:I2C, EUSART, SPI
•Product category:8-bit microcontroller-MCU
•Watchdog Timer:Watchdog Timer
•Voltage-power supply (Vcc/Vdd):1.8V~3.6V
•Product type:8-bit Microcontrollers-MCU
•Peripherals:Undervoltage detection/reset, LCD, POR, PWM, WDT


Ⅱ.Main features and advantages of PIC16LF1939-I/PT

1.Powerful performance: Although it is an 8-bit microcontroller, PIC16LF1939-I/PT has powerful performance and can meet the needs of a variety of applications, including applications that require high-speed computing and processing.

2.Low power consumption characteristics: PIC16LF1939-I/PT is designed with low power consumption technology and is suitable for applications that require long-term operation and strict power consumption requirements, such as battery-powered equipment or systems that require energy saving.

3.High-performance core: This microcontroller is based on an enhanced mid-range core and supports 49 instructions and 16-layer stack, providing excellent processing power and flexibility. This enables it to quickly perform a variety of complex control tasks.

4.Easy to program and develop: PIC16LF1939-I/PT supports multiple programming languages and development tools, such as MPLAB X IDE and PICkit debugger. This makes it easy to program and develop, shortening the development cycle.

5.High cost-effectiveness: As a mature product, PIC16LF1939-I/PT is highly cost-effective and suitable for mass production and application.

6.Flash memory: It has built-in Flash memory, which allows users to easily update and store programs. Compared with EEPROM memory, Flash memory has a higher number of erases and writes.

7.Rich peripherals and functions: The chip integrates multiple analog input/output pins, digital I/O pins, PWM output, timers, communication interfaces and other peripherals, providing users with flexible design options and Rich features.

8.Wide range of applications: Due to its high performance, large-capacity memory and rich peripheral interfaces, PIC16LF1939-I/PT is suitable for a variety of application scenarios, such as smart home, industrial automation, automotive electronics, motor control, etc.

9.Large-capacity memory: PIC16LF1939-I/PT provides up to 8 MIPS performance, has 28KB of program memory and 1024 bytes of RAM, and 256 bytes of data EEPROM. This enables it to store large amounts of programs and data to meet the needs of complex applications.

10.High-precision clock: PIC16LF1939-I/PT has a built-in 32MHz internal oscillator, which provides a precise clock source. In addition, it supports external oscillators and clock inputs to meet the clock accuracy requirements of different applications.

11.Rich development tool support: Microchip provides a wealth of development tools and support resources, including compilers, integrated development environments (IDEs), emulators, etc., to help users quickly develop and debug applications.

12.Rich peripheral interfaces: This microcontroller integrates a variety of peripheral interfaces, such as MI2C, SPI, EUSART, etc., and supports driving 96-segment LCD. In addition, it has 3 ECCP and 2 CCP (enhanced capture/compare/PWM) modules, as well as comparators with selectable voltage reference and 14-channel 10-bit ADC (analog-to-digital converter). These peripheral interfaces enable it to communicate and control other devices or sensors, expanding the scope of applications.

Ⅲ.Special functions of PIC16LF1939-I/PT

1.Analog peripherals: PIC16LF1939-I/PT integrates multiple analog peripherals, including analog comparators, analog-to-digital (A/D) converters, etc., which can be used for applications such as processing analog signals and collecting sensor data.

2.Communication interface: PIC16LF1939-I/PT supports a variety of communication interfaces, such as SPI, I2C, USART, etc., which can be used to communicate with external devices to achieve data transmission and control functions.

3.Digital peripherals: In addition to analog peripherals, the chip also has a wealth of digital peripherals, including digital I/O pins, PWM outputs, timers, counters, etc., which can be used for digital signal processing, control logic implementation and other applications.

4.Internal clock source: The chip has a variety of built-in clock source options, including high-precision crystal oscillator (HS), low-power crystal oscillator (LP), internal oscillator (INTRC), etc., which can be selected according to application requirements. clock source.

5.Self-protection function: PIC16LF1939-I/PT has a variety of built-in protection functions, including over-current protection, over-temperature protection, etc., which can protect the chip from the external environment and electrical interference and improve system stability and reliability.

6.Temperature sensor: The chip has a built-in temperature sensor that can be used to monitor the chip temperature in real time for applications such as temperature compensation or fault detection.

Ⅳ.Pinout Description of PIC16LF1939-I/PT


Ⅴ.Core Block Diagram of PIC16LF1939-I/PT


Ⅵ.Power consumption characteristics of PIC16LF1939-I/PT

1.Low-power design: PIC16LF1939-I/PT is one of Microchip’s low-power models. It is designed to optimize power consumption, allowing it to achieve lower power consumption levels in both standby and working modes.

2.Low-power peripherals: In addition to the low-power design of the chip itself, the peripherals of PIC16LF1939-I/PT also have low-power characteristics. For example, analog and digital peripherals also operate with the lowest possible power consumption.

3.Low-power operation mode: The chip supports a variety of low-power operation modes, such as standby mode, sleep mode, etc. In these low-power modes, the chip's power consumption is significantly reduced to achieve energy conservation.

4.Low-power standby mode: In standby mode, the chip can turn off most functional modules to further reduce power consumption. In this mode, the chip maintains only the necessary functional modules to maintain basic operation.

5.Low-power crystal oscillator: PIC16LF1939-I/PT has built-in low-power clock source options such as low-power crystal oscillator (LP) and internal oscillator (INTRC). The appropriate clock source can be selected according to application requirements. Reduce power consumption.


Ⅶ.Application fields of PIC16LF1939-I/PT

1.Intelligent transportation system: PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be used in intelligent transportation systems such as intelligent traffic light control, intelligent vehicle identification, and traffic signal optimization to improve traffic efficiency and safety.

•Intelligent traffic light control: PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be used in traffic light control systems to intelligently adjust traffic light signal timing based on real-time traffic flow data. By integrating sensors (such as vehicle detectors) and communication modules (such as wireless modules), traffic lights can dynamically adjust based on real-time traffic conditions, thereby improving traffic flow and reducing congestion.

•Intelligent vehicle identification: In intelligent transportation systems, vehicle identification is a critical task. PIC16LF1939-I/PT can realize automatic identification and tracking of vehicles by connecting to cameras, RFID readers or other vehicle identification devices. This recognition technology can be used in many aspects such as vehicle tracking, violation records, parking management, etc.

•Traffic signal optimization: By collecting and analyzing data such as traffic flow and vehicle speed, PIC16LF1939-I/PT can help optimize the layout and timing of traffic signals. Optimized traffic signals can distribute traffic flow more rationally, reduce traffic congestion and vehicle waiting time, and improve the efficiency and reliability of the entire transportation system.

•Safety monitoring and early warning: In intelligent transportation systems, safety is the primary consideration. PIC16LF1939-I/PT can realize real-time monitoring and early warning of the traffic environment by connecting to various sensors and actuators. For example, it can detect dangerous conditions such as slippery roads and speeding vehicles, and issue warnings or take corresponding control measures in a timely manner to ensure traffic safety.

2.Medical equipment control: PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be applied to medical equipment control systems, such as ventilators, blood pressure monitors, body temperature monitors, etc., to achieve precise control and data collection.

•Ventilator control: Ventilator is one of the important medical equipment to maintain the patient's life. PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be used in ventilator control systems to accurately control key parameters such as the mixing ratio of oxygen and air, air flow speed, and respiratory frequency. By monitoring the patient's respiratory status in real time, the microcontroller can automatically adjust the ventilator's working mode to ensure that the patient receives optimal respiratory support.

•Blood pressure monitor: Blood pressure is one of the important indicators for assessing human health. PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be connected to a blood pressure sensor to collect the patient's blood pressure data in real time and display the results to the doctor or patient through a monitor or communication device. The microcontroller can process and analyze blood pressure data to provide accurate measurement results and diagnostic basis.

•Infusion pump control: Infusion pump is one of the commonly used medical equipment in hospitals, used to accurately control the infusion speed and volume. PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be used in the control system of infusion pumps to achieve precise infusion control by controlling the speed and steering of the motor or stepper. At the same time, the microcontroller can also monitor the liquid level and flow rate of the infusion bottle to ensure the smooth progress of the infusion process.

•Body temperature monitor: Body temperature is one of the important parameters reflecting human health. PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be used in body temperature monitors to collect patient body temperature data in real time through temperature sensors. The microcontroller can process the data, display the body temperature value on the screen, and remind medical staff to handle abnormal situations in a timely manner through the alarm function.

3.Intelligent sensor network: PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be used to build intelligent sensor networks to realize environmental monitoring, data collection, remote monitoring and other functions, such as agricultural sensor networks, environmental monitoring networks, etc.

4.Industrial automation: In the field of industrial automation, PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be used as a controller for motion control, process control, etc. of various mechanical equipment. It can achieve precise motion control and process monitoring by connecting to motor drives, sensors and other devices.

•Motion control: In industrial production, motion control of mechanical equipment is a very critical link. PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be connected to a motor driver to achieve precise control of motor speed, position and direction. Through programming and algorithms, the microcontroller can adjust the motion state of the motor as needed to achieve complex mechanical motion and process control.

•Automated production line: In the automated production line, PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be used as the control core to coordinate the operation of various equipment and modules. By connecting to sensors, actuators, communication modules and other equipment, microcontrollers can achieve precise control of all aspects of the production line to ensure smooth operation and efficient output of the production line.

•Process Control: Industrial automation also includes the monitoring and control of production processes. PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be connected to various sensors and actuators to monitor temperature, pressure, flow and other parameters during the production process in real time, and automatically adjust and control according to preset conditions and algorithms. This ensures the stability of the production process and consistency of product quality.

•Remote monitoring and control: Industrial automation also requires remote monitoring and control of equipment. PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be connected to the host computer through a wireless or wired communication module to realize remote transmission of data and reception of control instructions. In this way, engineers or operators can remotely monitor the operating status of production equipment and make adjustments and controls as needed.

5.Power tool control: PIC16LF1939-I/PT is used to control power tools, such as electric drills, electric hammers, etc., and can achieve functions such as speed control, steering control, and fault detection.

•Speed control: Power tools often require multiple speed settings to meet different work needs. PIC16LF1939-I/PT can control the speed of the motor through PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) technology. Users can select the appropriate speed according to their needs, and the microcontroller adjusts the duty cycle of the PWM signal according to the preset algorithm to achieve precise control of the motor speed.

•User interface and communication: Power tools are usually equipped with a user interface, such as an LCD display or LED indicator light, and a communication interface, such as Bluetooth or Wi-Fi. The PIC16LF1939-I/PT can process user input, such as a button press or a knob turn, and display relevant information on the display, such as speed settings, battery level, or fault codes. At the same time, the microcontroller can also be connected to a smartphone or computer through a communication interface to achieve remote control, data synchronization, fault diagnosis and other functions.

•Fault detection: Power tools may suffer from overload, overheating or low battery voltage during operation. The PIC16LF1939-I/PT can detect these faults by monitoring parameters such as motor current, temperature and battery voltage. Once a fault is detected, the microcontroller can trigger an alarm or take other protective measures, such as shutting down the motor or limiting its power output.

•Steering control: Many power tools, such as electric drills and electric screwdrivers, require changing the direction of rotation of the motor. PIC16LF1939-I/PT can realize forward and reverse rotation functions by controlling the phase sequence of the motor. The user can switch the rotation direction of the motor by operating a switch or button, and the microcontroller adjusts the phase sequence of the motor according to the input signal.

6.Electric vehicle battery management system: PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be used in the battery management system of electric vehicles, including battery charge and discharge control, temperature monitoring, battery status estimation and other functions.

•Battery status estimation: Battery status estimation refers to estimating parameters such as the remaining capacity (SOC), remaining discharge time (DOD), and state of health (SOH) of the battery. PIC16LF1939-I/PT can collect data such as battery voltage, current and temperature, and combine it with battery models or algorithms for calculation and estimation.

•Battery charge and discharge control: The battery management system needs to accurately control the battery charge and discharge process to prevent problems such as overcharge, over-discharge, and over-current. PIC16LF1939-I/PT can monitor parameters such as battery voltage, current, and temperature, and adjust the charge and discharge process according to preset algorithms and control strategies. For example, when the battery is nearly fully charged or discharged too low, the microcontroller can gradually reduce or stop the charge and discharge current to protect the battery.

•Communication and Diagnostics: The battery management system needs to communicate with other systems in the vehicle and provide fault diagnosis and status information. The PIC16LF1939-I/PT can interface with vehicle controllers, instrument panels and other modules via CAN bus, LIN bus or other communication protocols. In this way, the battery management system can transmit battery status data in real time, receive control instructions, and provide fault diagnosis information to help maintenance personnel quickly locate and solve problems.

7.Energy management: In the field of energy management, PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be used to control solar inverters, wind energy inverters and other equipment. It can monitor the operating status of energy equipment and achieve efficient utilization and management of energy.

•Communication interface: PIC16LF1939-I/PT provides a variety of communication interface options, such as SPI, I2C, UART, etc. This allows the inverter to communicate with higher-level monitoring systems, smartphone apps, or other smart devices for remote monitoring and control.

•Inverter control: PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be used to control solar and wind inverters. It monitors the power input (such as the output voltage and current of a solar panel or wind turbine) and adjusts the inverter's output as needed. This control ensures that the inverter can operate efficiently and stably under different environmental conditions.

•Energy management and optimization: PIC16LF1939-I/PT can communicate with the superior energy management system to provide real-time energy data (such as power generation, efficiency, etc.). This data can be used to optimize energy use, predict maintenance needs and coordinate with other energy systems such as the grid.

•Fault diagnosis and protection: The inverter may encounter various faults during operation, such as overheating, overvoltage, undervoltage, etc. The PIC16LF1939-I/PT can monitor these parameters and trigger protection mechanisms when abnormal conditions are detected, such as shutting down the inverter or reducing its power output. In addition, the microcontroller can also send fault information to the monitoring system through the communication interface for timely maintenance.

•Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT): For solar systems, MPPT is a key technology that enables solar panels to output maximum power under different lighting conditions. PIC16LF1939-I/PT can adjust the operating point of the solar panel through algorithms to achieve maximum power point tracking. This can significantly improve the overall efficiency of your solar system. 8

8.Smart home: PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be used for various control tasks in smart home systems, such as lighting control, security monitoring, curtain control, etc. It can be connected to various sensors and actuators to achieve intelligent home control.

9.Motor control: PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be used to control various motors, such as DC motors, stepper motors, etc. It provides rich peripheral interfaces and powerful control capabilities to achieve precise motor drive and speed control.

•Precise motor drive: PIC16LF1939-I/PT provides rich peripheral interfaces, such as PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) output, which is crucial for precise control of motor speed and direction. By adjusting the duty cycle of the PWM signal, the motor's speed and torque can be finely controlled to achieve smooth acceleration and deceleration.

•Energy Savings and Efficiency: Through precise speed and position control, the PIC16LF1939-I/PT helps achieve energy-saving operation of the motor. When full speed operation or precise position control is not required, a microcontroller can adjust the motor's speed or operating mode to reduce energy consumption and improve overall efficiency.

10.Embedded IoT devices: PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be used to connect and control embedded IoT devices, such as smart home gateways, smart city equipment, smart factory equipment, etc., to achieve device interconnection and remote monitoring.

11.Automotive electronics: Since PIC16LF1939-I/PT has high performance and low power consumption, it is also suitable for automotive electronics, such as automotive instrument panels, car light controls, door controls, etc. It can provide reliable vehicle control and monitoring functions by connecting to on-board sensors and actuators.

Ⅷ.How to optimize the PWM resolution of PIC16LF1939-I/PT

1.Improve digital control technology: Using higher resolution ADC (analog-to-digital converter) or DAC (digital-to-analog converter) can improve the accuracy of digital control systems. This allows for more accurate measurement and control of the duty cycle of the PWM signal, thereby improving PWM resolution.

2.Reduce PWM frequency: While increasing PWM frequency usually helps improve system performance, in some cases, reducing PWM frequency can increase resolution. This can be achieved by increasing the number of pulses within the PWM cycle, allowing for more fine-grained control of the duty cycle.

3.Increase the number of bits of the PWM signal: If the microcontroller supports higher-bit PWM output, more bits can be used to increase the resolution of the PWM. A higher number of bits means that the duty cycle of the PWM signal can be adjusted more finely, resulting in smoother output voltage or current control.

4.Optimize the design of the PWM waveform generator: Modify the design of the PWM waveform generator to improve its accuracy. This includes using a more accurate clock source, a more stable reference voltage, or a more accurate comparator to generate the PWM signal.

5.Use filtering technology: Use a low-pass filter or other filtering technology to filter out the high-frequency components in the PWM signal. This reduces ripple in the output voltage or current, thereby improving overall system performance. It is important to note that the filter design should be carefully considered to avoid causing excessive delay or distortion to the PWM signal.

6.Software algorithm optimization: Optimize the algorithm used to generate and control PWM signals. This includes using more accurate algorithms to calculate duty cycle, implementing more efficient digital filtering, or adjusting the PWM signal generation strategy.

7.Consider external hardware optimization: Use high-quality components, such as power switch tubes, inductors and capacitors, in the path of the PWM signal. The selection of these components will directly affect the accuracy and stability of the PWM signal.

8.Consider the overall needs of the system: While doing any optimization, the overall needs of the system should be taken into consideration. For example, if the system requires fast response or high-precision control, there may be trade-offs between different aspects.

Frequently Asked Questions

1.What is the core architecture of PIC16LF1939-I/PT?
The core architecture of PIC16LF1939-I/PT has general-purpose I/O pins, central processing unit, clock and timer modules, instruction set, interrupt controller and register group.

2.How can PIC16LF1939-I/PT be programmed?
PIC16LF1939-I/PT can be programmed using MPLAB X IDE along with a compatible programmer/debugger connected to the development environment.

3.What development tools are available for programming PIC16LF1939-I/PT?
Microchip provides development tools such as MPLAB X IDE, compilers, debuggers, and programmers for programming and debugging PIC16LF1939-I/PT.